labisqwee (labisqwee) wrote,
labisqwee
labisqwee

Science on beauty

Несподівано для себе я відкрила той факт, що антропологи все ж не згідні з Кантом і насмілюються говорити про оцінку естетики, у цьому конкретному прикладі - естетики людського вигляду. І результати їх діяльності виявилися дуже цікавими: це ж усе можна використати як свою зброю!

Наприклад, вчені підтверджують: помада, яка підсилює червоний пігмент губ, таки робить нас красивішими (Lip colour affects perceived sex typicality and attractiveness of human faces, 2010).

А широкі, темні брови, якими повняться подіуми - чоловіча прерогатива. Прикрасять вони лише андрогінних жінок. Жіночність передають не підведені брови, а підведені очі. "Here, we demonstrate that the luminance contrast pattern of the eyes and eyebrows is consistently sexually dimorphic across a large sample of faces, with females possessing lower brow contrasts than males, and greater eye contrast than males." (Cosmetics alter biologically-based factors of beauty: evidence from facial contrast, 2015)

Також ці святі люди не полінувалися переконатись, що загалом макіяж, який підвищує природній рівень контрастності обличчя - на користь (A sex difference in facial contrast and its exaggeration by cosmetics, 2009; Neural activity associated with enhanced facial attractiveness by cosmetics use, 2014).

На цьому просте у цій легковажній темі закінчується. Неполіткоректна думка професора відділу антропології Віденського університету Karl Grammer на тему краси і її "вимірюваності": "People always say that beauty standards are generated, for instance, by fashion models. I do not think that is true. Models might have some influence, but only on a very small scale. Some argue that beauty is a myth — that “real beauty comes from inside”. This is completely untrue. Beauty provides reliable information about youth, fertility and health."

Вісім основ краси, за його версією: симетрія; молодість (не дитячість); близькість до середніх (розмірів, форм, відстаней); виражений статевий диморфізм; запах; манера рухів; стан шкіри і текстура волосся.

Далі знахідки поступово стають все складнішими, зачіпають все більше серйозних тем і часом доволі сумні.

"Women have an attentional bias to thin bodies, which appears to be automatic. Contrary to prediction, this bias was weaker in women with greater BMI and body dissatisfaction. This result offers no support for the view that selective attention to thin bodies is causally related to body dissatisfaction." (Body Dissatisfaction and Attentional Bias to Thin Bodies, 2010)

"The human obsession with beauty in modern Western societies is not much different from similar efforts in other societies, and the mere success of the industry is a reflection of the immense strength of the relevant psychological adaptations and mate preferences. If attractiveness has any relation to mate selection then we would expect two basic differences in the evaluation of traits in the opposite sex: first, traits which guarantee optimal reproduction, i.e. youth, should be valued, and second, these traits should be basically those which are sexually dimorphic. This should be the case because sexual dimorphism is a result of sex-specific adaptation of a body to the requirements of the evolutionary past, i.e. survival and reproduction.
Breast augmentation may lead to higher attractiveness for males, a larger number of possible choices of high status males, and finally possibly higher reproductive success. But as soon as this circle is started and success comes by surgery, its use will spread and trickle down to more and more surgery, until plastic people emerge. But there is also a down side to this game. When the media raise attractiveness standards by prototyping beauty, then unreal expectations to mate quality (beauty) will emerge. If the mean is more beautiful than reality, no mate selection can occur on realistic grounds leading to a high proportion of singles." (Darwinian aesthetics: sexual selection and the biology of beauty, 2012)

Треба чимось позитивним завершити цю нелегку справу. От, наукова спільнота схвалює: жінці личить бути щасливою. А взагалі, наукова спільнота могла би назвати роботу і "Are happy/fearful men more like women?".

"Two studies confirmed that expressions of happiness/fear bias gender discrimination toward the female, whereas anger expressions seem more closely linked to maleness. Thus, a person who shows a happy/fearful expression is perceived as more likely to be a woman, and women who show happy or fearful expressions are identified more quickly as women. In contrast, women who show anger expressions are identified more slowly as women, and a person who looks angry is more likely to be considered to be a man. These findings support the notion that anger, fear, and happiness share common signal features with sex markers." (Face gender and emotion expression: Are angry women more like men? 2009)
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